This part of the E-Learning arrangement Project Management in Urban Design is presented with respect to already made considerations on gaining knowledge and extracting parts of what individuals interact with outside of themselves. Knowledge can be understood as an abstracted access to the world – or reality, or the system we never not participate in. Knowledge is access to world, when withdrawn. It sounds as abstract as it is, but it is important to understand this. Consider the following situation: A group of participants prepares to build a community building. Before taking action, each and every individual will tend to think to know something completely different when saying „Community Building“. Apart from the fact that this is a multiple source of what could be meant and hence could be built and therefore be the product - the fact that the elements of knowledge differ immensely, puts some light to the idea, that what is in question, is a question of how an the same world is an uncountably often copied version of itself, thanks to being framed by different individuals.
'Soziale Rahmen liefern einen Verständnishintergrund für Ereignisse, an denen Wille, Ziel und steuerndes Eingreifen einer Intelligenz, eines Lebewesens, in erster Linie des Menschen beteiligt sind.' (Althoff 2013, 101)
One incident can be named, shamed and blamed by different individuals due to having precedently and individually framed the incident. Framing is a way of organizing experience. As individual experience is essential in processes of interplay, actions of framing are of great importance. Erving Goffman (1993/1980) puts it like this:
'Zusammengenommen bilden die primären Rahmen einer sozialen Gruppe einen Hauptbestandteil von deren Kultur, vor allem insofern als sich ein Verstehen bezüglich wichtiger Klassen von Schemata entwickelt, bezüglich deren Verhältnissen zueinander und bezüglich der Gesamtheit der Kräfte und Wesen, (…), die nach diesen Deutungsmustern in der Welt vorhanden sind.' (37)
It becomes clear, that social, cultural, scientific and other framings make things what they are (or what they are not being received as), and that an interaction that is more than interplay – for instance an intervention – is as much an intervention as it differs from the social framings it occurs in.
Althoff, M., 2013. Die soziale Konstruktion von Fremdenfeindlichkeit. Springer-Verlag.
Goffman, E., 1980. Rahmen-Analyse: Ein Versuch über die Organisation von Alltagserfahrungen. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.
Mersch, D., 2015. The ‘Power’ of the Performative. In: S. Wolfrum and N.F. von Brandis, eds. Performative Urbanism: Generating and Designing Urban Space. Berlin: Jovis Berlin, 39–48.
Why is the theater so commonly used in intellectual efforts questioning what it means to live today?
Symbolic interactionism looked at the ways roles are constructed in everyday life. Using the familiar concept of drama, or dramaturgy, he analyzes social life using an analogy to the theater, with human social behavior seen as more or less scripted according to the roles taken upon by actors. Life as a drama, and the roles played to make it meaningful, are equated with theatrical conditions in which actors appear in a front stage according to the roles they are supposed to play as part of a crew or "team." After enacting their roles, the "real" self is presented at the back stage in a different way. The simplicity and variety of roles people play make symbolic interactionism appeal to the ordinary readers. Roles come in many form, and are acquired in different manner. Role-taking is a key mechanism of interaction, defined by particular situations and environments.
Actions depend on execution. Although this is a banal notion to make, it unfolds the complex and contingent aspects of performance and reveals that actions rely on media. Furthermore, actions take place with an actor as referent and this actor’s faculties (embodied skills) and normative forces. Both, media and actors need and take the performance of action – a manifestation or intervention in the world. Dieter Mersch (2013, p. 40) has assembled this in the argument that ‘the action is the praxis and performance is its coming into the world’.
The performance speaks of the how of the enactment, the performance of actions. There is no performance without its enactment. Following this assumption, the proposition is to look for an existing vector in action(s), which is specified in performance and thus produces modes of actions, which, thus again, reveals different modes of realising – giving form or design.